The phenomenon of a slow rise in temperature close to the earth's surface is known as global warming. Over the last century or two, this phenomenon has been noted. The earth's climatic pattern has been altered by this change. Although the idea of global warming is still up for debate, scientists have presented evidence to support the idea that the earth's temperature is steadily increasing.

Global warming has several causes that are harmful to people, plants, and animals. These causes could be a result of human activity or could be natural. Understanding the harmful effects of global warming is crucial for tackling the problems.


Causes of global warming ? 


The greenhouse effect


Different types of solar and terrestrial radiation are kept in balance to keep the Earth's average surface temperature constant. Because the frequencies of the radiation are relatively high and the wavelengths are relatively short—not far from the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum—solar radiation is frequently referred to as "shortwave" radiation. Terrestrial radiation, on the other hand, is frequently referred to as "longwave" radiation due to the relatively low frequencies and lengthy wavelengths—somewhere in the infrared region of the spectrum. 

Watts per square metre is commonly used to measure downward-moving solar energy. The "solar constant," or total solar radiation energy, is equal to roughly 1,366 watts per square metre per year at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. The average annual surface insolation is 342 watts per square metre accounting for the fact that only 50% of the planet's surface is exposed to solar radiation.

Only a small portion of the total solar radiation that enters the atmosphere is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Approximately 30 units of the incoming solar radiation for every 100 are reflected in space by the atmosphere, the clouds, or reflective areas of the Earth's surface. The spatial extent and distribution of reflective formations, such as clouds and ice cover, can change, which means that Earth's planetary albedo need not remain constant over time.

The atmosphere, clouds, or surface may absorb the 70 solar radiation units that are not reflected. The same 70 units must be radiated back into space by the Earth's surface and atmosphere to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium in the absence of additional complications. According to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the magnitude of this emission of outgoing radiation is correlated with the temperature of the Earth's surface (and that of the lower layer of the atmosphere that is essentially in contact with the surface).

The greenhouse effect adds to the complexity of Earth's energy budget. The so-called greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), are trace gases with specific chemical properties that absorb some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. A portion of the original 70 units does not directly escape to space as a result of this absorption. The net effect of absorption by greenhouse gases is to increase the total amount of radiation emitted downward toward Earth's surface and lower atmosphere because greenhouse gases emit the same amount of radiation that they absorb and because this radiation is emitted equally in all directions (that is, as much downward as upward). 

Earth's surface and lower atmosphere must produce more radiation than the initial 70 units to maintain equilibrium. Therefore, a higher surface temperature is required. The result is similar, even though this process is not quite the same as that which controls a real greenhouse. In comparison to what would be anticipated in the absence of greenhouse gases, the presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere causes a warming of the surface and lower part of the atmosphere (and cooling higher up in the atmosphere).


Man-made Global warming causes Deforestation


The primary source of oxygen plants. They maintain environmental balance by absorbing carbon dioxide and exhaling oxygen. For a variety of domestic and commercial uses, forests are being destroyed. This has caused an imbalance in the environment, which has resulted in global warming.


Employing Vehicles


Even for very short distances, using a vehicle produces a variety of gaseous emissions. When fossil fuels are burned in vehicles, a lot of carbon dioxide and other toxins are released into the atmosphere, which raises the temperature.



Humans have been introducing CFCs into the environment through the excessive use of air conditioners and refrigerators, which has an impact on the ozone layer in the atmosphere. The ozone layer shields the surface of the earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. By causing the ozone layer to thin and make way for ultraviolet rays, CFCs have raised the earth's temperature.

Through the excessive use of air conditioners and refrigerators, humans have been releasing CFCs into the environment, which affects the ozone layer in the atmosphere. The earth's surface is protected from the sun's dangerous ultraviolet rays by the ozone layer. CFCs have increased the earth's temperature by thinning the ozone layer and allowing ultraviolet rays to enter the atmosphere.



Industrial Progress

The onset of industrialization has resulted in a rapid rise in the earth's temperature. The earth's temperature is rising as a result of the factories' harmful emissions.

According to a 2013 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the global temperature rose by 0.9 degrees Celsius between 1880 and 2012.


Industrial Development

The earth's temperature has rapidly increased as a result of the start of industrialization. Because of the factories' harmful emissions, the earth's temperature is rising.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported in 2013 that between 1880 and 2012, the world's temperature increased by 0.9 degrees Celsius.


Biological Reasons for Global Warming



One of the main natural causes of global warming is volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions release smoke and ash into the atmosphere, which has an impact on the climate.

Vaporized Water

One kind of greenhouse gas is water vapour. As the earth's temperature rises, more water evaporation from water bodies occurs and stays in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.

Permafrost melting

Under the surface of the Earth, there is permafrost, which is frozen soil that has been trapped in environmental gases for a long time. It can be found in glaciers. The gases are released back into the atmosphere as the permafrost melts, raising the temperature of the planet.

The Forest Burns

Forest fires and blazes produce a lot of smoke that contains carbon. These gases are released into the atmosphere and increase the earth’s temperature resulting in global warming.


Global warming solution


  • Renewable energy sources

Moving away from fossil fuels is the first step in preventing climate change. What other options are there? renewable energy sources like biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind.

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  • Water and energy efficiency

Producing clean energy is crucial, but it's equally important to use more cost-effective technologies to reduce our energy and water usage, such as LED lightbulbs and cutting-edge shower systems.

  • Environmentally friendly travel

Promoting carpooling, public transportation, and electric and hydrogen mobility are all effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions and combat global warming.

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Using renewable energy


  1. The first step in halting climate change is to move away from fossil fuels. What other choices are available? sources of renewable energy like geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass.

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  •  Energy and water conservation

Utilizing more affordable technologies, such as LED lightbulbs and cutting-edge shower systems, to reduce our energy and water usage is equally as important as producing clean energy.

  • Environmentally friendly Travel

Effective ways to lower CO2 emissions and fight global warming include promoting carpooling, public transportation, and electric and hydrogen mobility.

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Steps to reduce Air Pollution

  • Utilizing public transportation: Using public transportation, which requires less gas and electricity, is a surefire way to help reduce air pollution; even carpooling is beneficial. In addition to saving you money, taking public transportation minimises the amount of fuel and gas released.
  • When not in use, turn off the lights: Reducing power usage can aid in energy conservation because lighting contributes to air pollution. Use fluorescent lighting that uses less energy to benefit the environment.
  • Recycle and reuse: The idea of recycling and reuse helps the environment by reducing pollution emissions while also conserving resources and using them wisely. Recycled materials also require less energy to manufacture.
  • No to plastic bags: Plastic items may be hazardous the due to their oil-based makeup and the length of time it takes for them to degrade. Paper bags are a better alternative because they recycle easily and degrade quickly.
  • Smoking and forest fire reduction A significant source of air pollution is the collection of waste and setting it ablaze in dry seasons, or dry leaves catching fire. Smoking also contributes to air pollution, deteriorating air quality, and harms one's health.
  • Fan use as an alternative to air conditioning: The use of air conditioners damages the environment because it uses a lot of energy and generates a lot of heat. Air conditioners use a lot more energy and power than fans to operate.
  • Use chimney filters: The gas emitted by fireplaces in homes and businesses is especially hazardous for air pollution and has a significant detrimental effect on the quality of the air. Filters should be used if consumption cannot be decreased as this will lessen the impact of harmful gases absorbed in the air.
  • Avoid using crackers: Sadly, the burning of crackers during celebrations and weddings is one of the main sources of air pollution, which results in a haze that is extremely harmful to human health. It is advised not to use crackers as a result.
  • Avoid using chemical-containing products: Since paint and perfume contain chemicals, they should only be used occasionally or outside the home. It may be possible to use products with low chemical content and organic qualities.
  • Finally, make a concerted effort to plant and maintain as many trees as you can by implementing afforestation. Planting trees helps release oxygen and has many other positive effects on the environment.