How Hydro Power Works


What is hydropower?

Hydropower is a form of energy that comes from the movement of water. The process of producing electricity via hydropower, commonly referred to as water power. Hydropower uses the gravitational potential or kinetic energy of a water source.

Today, hydropower is primarily utilized to generate electricity. How Hydropower is produced Hydropower, which uses the free flow of flowing water to produce electricity, is one of the oldest and most significant forms of renewable energy. Hydropower generates 99% of the electricity in Norway. The 22.5 gigawatt Three Gorges Dam in China is the largest power facility in the world. It generates 80–100 teta-hours annually, enough to power 70–80 million households.

The fundamental idea behind hydropower is the use of water to propel turbines. There are two fundamental types of hydropower: those with dams and reservoirs and those without. Large reservoir hydropower dams can store water for short- or long-term periods to satisfy peak demand to generate hydropower.  Additionally, the facilities can be split up into smaller dams for day or night use, seasonal storage, or pumped-storage reversible plants, which can be used for both pumping and electricity production. Without dams and reservoirs, hydropower is generated on a smaller scale, generally from a facility built into a river to function without obstructing its flow. Because of this, many people view small-scale hydro as a more environmentally friendly choice.

How does hydropower work?

Utilizing a turbine that is attached to a generator, hydropower converts the energy from the flow of water into electricity. The majority of hydropower plants use dams to store their water, and the amount of water that goes out is controlled by a gate or valve. More energy can be produced the higher the dam is elevated.

The water gains potential energy just before crossing the dam, and as it runs downhill, this potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy. A turbine is turned by the water, and the turbine is connected to an electric generator that provides hydropower to the final customers


The electricity is generated by a turbine and a generator.

A hydraulic turbine transforms the mechanical energy of moving water. This mechanical energy is transformed into electricity by a hydropower generator. The ideas Faraday established form the foundation of how a generator works. He discovered that moving a magnet past a conductor makes electricity flow. Electromagnets are created in a huge generator by running a direct current through wire loops that are coiled around stacks of magnetic steel laminations.

These are positioned around the rotor's edge and are referred to as field poles. The turbine shaft is where the rotor is mounted, and it turns at a set speed. The field poles (the electromagnets) pass past the conductors positioned in the stator as the rotor rotates. In turn, this results in the flow of electricity and the creation of a voltage at the generator's output terminals.



The most practical and effective way to generate electricity is through hydropower. Modern hydro turbines are so advanced that they can generate electricity from more than 90% of the available energy. When compared to the most efficient fossil fuel facility, which is just 50% efficient, this is far superior. Over 16% of the world's electricity is produced using hydroelectricity, making it a crucial component of the electrical mix of today. Although other renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal are quickly gaining popularity, hydropower is anticipated to continue to fuel the majority of global economies for a very long time.

Types of hydroelectric plants?


1] Dam: dam raises the water level of the river to create the following water and also controls the flow of water. 

2] Turbine: the force of falling water pushing against the turbine’s blades causes the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except for energy. The turbine is provided by falling water instead of wind which converts the kinetic energy of falling water into a mechanical energy.

3] Generator: connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it causes the generator to spin and convert the mechanical energy from the turbine into electric energy. generators in hydropower plants work just like the generators in other types of the power plant. 

4] Transmission lines: conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and business 

There are four main types of hydropower facilities:       

  1. Impoundment –Impoundments, which utilize a reservoir, are the most prevalent kind of hydropower facility. When the water is discharged from the reservoir, it flows via a turbine. When the turbine rotates, a generator that generates power is set in motion. Similar to micro-hydro plants, a huge reservoir is not necessary.
  2. Pumped storage –Similar to impoundment, this technique uses two reservoirs to capture the movement of the water. The reservoirs, which are positioned at various altitudes, produce electricity "on demand."
  3. Run-of-the-river –Smaller-scale power generation takes place in this kind of plant. Similar to a dam, a turbine is turned by water flowing down a river. The generator is connected to the turbine, and after that, the electricity is distributed and hydropower is generated . This technique needs a river with a steady flow of water to work.
  4. Tidal power – This process produces energy by using the flow of seawater. Because tides travel in predictable patterns, tidal facilities can provide a lot of energy twice daily.

How do we get energy from water?

A dam or other construction that alters the natural flow of rivers or other bodies of water is used to generate hydroelectric power, a renewable source of energy. Hydropower uses water as its fuel, which is not changed or lost during the production of electricity. It relies on the infinite, perpetually renewing system of the water cycle.

Although there are many different kinds of hydropower plants, they are always propelled by the kinetic energy of water moving downstream.

To turn that kinetic energy into electricity, which can then be used to power buildings, businesses, and industries, hyperpower uses turbines and generators.

Advantages of Hydropower?

Because it is powered by water, hydropower is a clean source of energy.

Hydropower is affordable

Compared to other energy sources, hydropower offers cheap electricity and long-term durability.

It's time to rediscover and revitalize hydropower, a time-honored source of clean energy. It can be produced by either huge stations or tiny plants, and it can help drain swampy land and irrigate crops. Even for domestic use, it has enormous potential.


1 .  The cheapest energy source 

Water power is by far the least expensive source overall in the medium to long term, despite the significant initial cost and difficulty of building a hydropower plant.


2 .  Hydropower stations are agile and responsible 

The power plants are very adaptable when dealing with variable water supplies. Very little energy is needed for production processes to get going. Even a big station can switch from being offline to operating at full power and vice versa in a matter of minutes. However, the responsiveness is dependent on the type of turbine being utilized and how the water flows are controlled.


3.  Water brings with it enormous energy 

A lot of energy can be produced using hydropower. Even a small fraction of the massive masses of water available at high altitudes, which contain gravitational potential energy, can be used to generate Hydropower. Let's just say that all of the largest power plants in the world are hydroelectric and that a single station can supply all of the energy needed for millions of people.


4 . Production can be tailored to demand 

The fact that many renewable energy sources cannot provide a steady stream of electricity is one of their most fundamental shortcomings. However, in the case of hydropower, high elevation reservoirs, like dams, can partially mitigate weather and climatic unpredictability. As a result, something that could have been a weakness is now a strength: the water flow can be simply adjusted to meet energy requirements. This holds true both in the short term, such as during the night-day cycle and in the longer term, such as during seasonal changes and droughts.


5 . Very low indirect emission 

Since methane, one of the primary greenhouse gases, can be produced when organic waste decomposes in water storage reservoirs, there have occasionally been debate over whether hydroelectric power is truly green. However, several technical-scientific analyses disproved that opinion, demonstrating that these emissions are practically negligible when compared to those of fossil fuels and completely absurd in the most contemporary plants... 


6. Hydropower provides us both with baseload power and with balancing power

Electricity cannot yet be stored very much. Instead, we must produce precisely how much electricity we require at any particular time. It's not the simplest of tasks to keep supply and demand precisely balanced. In Sweden, the weather results in shifting conditions for both the supply and demand for power. Stable baseload power and enough balancing power to regulate electricity generation to meet our changing need for energy are two essential elements for having enough electricity to satisfy our needs, including fluctuations in our demand. We get both of these things from hydropower.


The cornerstone of the electricity system, which includes nuclear and hydropower, is stable and assures the high quality and reliability of our electricity supply. The adaptability of hydropower is one of its benefits. In reservoirs, the water used by the power plants is kept and used as needed. Thus, hydropower serves as Sweden's equivalent of a battery, providing a sizable natural energy reserve that can be called upon on chilly winter nights when electricity demand is at its peak and on calm summer days when wind turbines are not operating.


7. Renewable

A renewable energy source is a hydropower. Hydropower is a renewable energy source since it depends on the water cycle, which is fueled by sunlight.





Does it affect the environment? 


No, and yes. A hydroelectric project's environmental impact will vary depending on its size and technology; for instance, a small run-of-river system will have a much lower impact than one that involves flooding land to build a new reservoir, which will have a significant impact on the ecosystem both upstream and downstream.

Once the construction is finished, these areas offer a chance for a biodiverse ecosystem to flourish. Additionally, the water continues its normal water cycle after passing through the turbines to generate energy, unharmed and unaffected by the process.




Hydropower facilities come in a variety of sizes, from huge power plants that serve a large number of users to small, even "micro" plants run by private citizens for their own energy needs or to sell to utilities.

Enormous hydropower

Although there are many definitions, the DOE considers large hydropower plants to be any establishments with a capacity of more than 30 megawatts (MW).


Small Hydropower

While there are many classifications, the DOE considers small hydropower plants to be those that produce between 100 kilowatts and 10 MW.


Miniature hydropower

A tiny hydropower plant can produce up to 100 kilowatts of electricity. A single house, farm, ranch, or hamlet can have a small or micro-hydroelectric power plant provide enough electricity for them.


History of hydropower


One of the earliest methods of generating mechanical and electrical energy is hydropower, which, until 2019, accounted for the majority of all renewable electricity produced annually in the United States. To grind grain thousands of years ago, people harnessed hydropower to turn paddle wheels on rivers. Grain and lumber mills were directly powered by hydropower before steam power and electricity were available in the United States. At the Wolverine Chair Factory in Grand Rapids, Michigan, hydropower was first used industrially to create electricity in the United States in 1880 to light 16 brush-arc lamps. On September 30, 1882, a hydroelectric power station on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin, became the first to sell electricity in the United States with the help of Hydropower.

In the US, there are 40 pumped-storage hydropower stations and around 1,450 conventional hydropower plants. The Whiting plant in Whiting, Wisconsin, which began operating in 1891 and has a total generation capacity of around 4 megawatts, is the oldest hydropower facility still in use in the United States (MW). The majority of the hydroelectricity generated in the United States is generated at massive dams on significant rivers, and the majority of these dams were constructed before the middle of the 1970s by federal government agencies. The Grand Coulee hydro dam on the Columbia River in Washington has a total generation capacity of 6,765 MW, making it the largest hydroelectric facility and electric power plant in the United States.